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The MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for writing articles and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities. This feature has been updated to reflect theMLA manual(9ºed.), provides examples of the general format of MLA research articles, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the works cited page.
OMLA manualemphasizes principles over prescribed practices. Essentially, in each source, an author must note key elements such as author, title, etc. and then order them in a general format. Thus, using this method, an author can cite any source, regardless of whether it is included in this list.
However, this guide highlights some concerns when citing MLA-style digital sources.
Best Practices for Managing Online Fonts
Because information online can change or disappear, it's always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing important documents ensures that you have a stable backup. You can also use the bookmarking feature in your web browser to create an easily accessible reference to all sources in your project (however, this won't help if the information is changed or removed).
It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consulted each online source. The MLA uses the term "access" to mean the date you accessed the site, when available or required. This is not required, but is recommended (especially if a site does not include a copyright date).
Important note about the use of URLs in the MLA
Add a URL or web address to make your sources easier for readers to find. Since web addresses are not static (i.e., they change frequently) and documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (for example, in multiple databases), the MLA recommends using citation containers such as Youtube, JSTOR , Spotify or Netflix to easily check the sources to access and review them. However, the MLA only requires the www. address, so remove all https:// when quoting URL.
Many scientific journal articles found in databases contain a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). If a DOI is available, enter the DOI number instead of the URL.
Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a "permalink," which is a stable, shortened version of a URL. Look for a "share" or "quote" button to see if a feed contains a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.
Abbreviations commonly used with electronic sources
If the page numbers are not available, use the pair. or pair. to designate paragraph numbers. Use this instead of p. or pp. abbreviation. Pair. would be used for a single paragraph while pars. would be used for a length of two or more paragraphs.
Basic citation style for electronic sources (including online databases)
Here are some general characteristics to look for before citing MLA-style electronic sources. Not all websites provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:
- names of authors and/or editors (if available); Last names first.
- "Name of the item in quotes."
- Website, project or book title in italics.
- All available version numbers, including editions (ed.), revisions, publication dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (#).
- Publisher information, including publisher name and publication date.
- Write page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- DOI (if available, before "https://doi.org/"), otherwise URL (not https://) or permalink.
- Date you accessed the material (access date). Although not required, it is strongly recommended to save this information, especially for pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
Use the following format:
Author. "Title."Container title (regardless if it is a book), Other Collaborators (Translator or Publisher), Version (Edition), Number (Vol. and/or No.), Editorial, Publication Date, Place (Pages, Paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or Permalink).2North Dakotacontainer title, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location, Access Date (if applicable).
Citing an entire website
When citing an entire website, follow the same format as above, but provide a compiler name if no single author is available.
Name of the author or compiler (if available). Website Name. Version number (if applicable), name of the institution/organization associated with the site (sponsor or publisher), resource creation date (if applicable), DOI (preferred), otherwise URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
Name of the publisher, author or compiler (if available).Website Name. Version number, name of the institution/organization (sponsor or publisher) associated with the site, resource creation date (if available), URL, DOI, or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
The Purdue OWL family of sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Consulted on April 23, 2008.
Felluga, Dino.Literary and critical theory guide. Purdue U 2003 November 28, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed May 10, 2006.
Course or department websites
Enter the name of the teacher. Then provide the course title (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Include the appropriate department and school names after the course title.
Felluga, Dino.english literature research. Purdue U, August 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Consulted on May 31, 2007.
English department. Purdue U, April 20, 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Consulted on May 31, 2015.
A page on a website
For an individual page on a website, provide the author or pseudonym, if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article referenced. Typically, the page or article title appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire sites. If the publisher is the same as the site name, include it only once.
LUNDMAN, Susan. "How to make vegetarian chili".As, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Consulted on July 6, 2015.
„Athlete's foot: general description of the topic.”WebMD, September 25, 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
an electronic book
E-book citations are very similar to physical book citations. Simply indicate that the book in question is an ebook by entering the term "ebook" in the "Version" field of the MLA template (i.e. after the author, source title, container title, and title names). all other contributors). ).
Silva, Paul J.How to Write Well: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing.Ebook, American Psychological Association, 2007.
If the ebook is formatted for a specific reader or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would the edition number of a physical book. Often this means replacing "e-book" with "[Application/Service] ed".
Machiavelli, Nicholas.Prince, translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed.
Observation:The MLA uses the term "electronic book" to refer to publications that are specially formatted for reading with an electronic book reader (for example, a Kindle) or equivalent web application. These eBooks have no URL or DOI. When citing book content from a regular web page with a URL, use the format of a page on an older website.
An image (including a painting, sculpture, or photograph)
Include the name of the artist, the work in italics, the date of creation, the institution, and the city where the work is located. Follow that first entry with the name of the site in italics and the date it was accessed.
Heaven, Francis.In Family Carlos IV. 1800. Prado National Museum, Madrid.Prado National Museum, www.museodelprado.es/es/la-coleccion/obras-de-arte/la-familia-de-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Consulted on May 22, 2006.
Klee, Pablo.squeaker machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York.the artful, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Consulted in May 2006.
If the work cited is available only on the web, please provide the name of the artist and the title of the work and follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted under a username, use that username for the author.
Adams, Clifton R. "People relaxing in a pool on a farm near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928."Found,National Geographic Creative, June 2, 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.
An article in a web magazine.
Include the name of the author, the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the web journal in italics, the name of the publisher, the date of publication, the URL, and the date of access.
BERNSTEIN, Marcos.„10 tips for writing the live network.”A List of Your Own: For People Who Build Websites, August 16, 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Consulted on May 4, 2009.
An article in an online scientific journal.
For all online scholarly journals, include the name of the author(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available; otherwise, provide a URL or permalink to help readers find the source.
Article in an online-only academic journal
The MLA requires a page area for articles appearing in scientific journals. If the journal you are citing is in an online-only format (ie, there is no equivalent print publication) that does not use page numbers, please provide the URL or other location information.
DOLBY, Nadine. "Research in Youth Culture and Politics: Current Conditions and Future Directions".Social work and society: the online-only international journal,Volume 6, No. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Consulted on May 20, 2009.
Article in an online scientific journal that also appears in print
Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print, just as you would in a print scholarly journal.including article side section. Provide the URL and the date of access.
Wheelis, Mark.„Investigation of outbreaks under a protocol of the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention.”emerging infectious diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Consulted on February 8, 2009.
An article from an online database (or other electronic signature service)
Cite online databases (eg LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Therefore, insert the database title in italics before the DOI or URL. If no DOI is provided, use the URL. If desired, enter the date of access.
Alonso, Alvaro and Julio A. Camargo.„Nitrite toxicity for three species of freshwater invertebrates.”environmental Toxicology,vol. 21, no. 1, February 3, 2006, p. 90-94.Wiley Online Library, https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Consulted on May 26, 2009.
Langhammer, Claire. "Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth Century England".historical magazine,volume 50, no. 1, 2007, p. 173-9ProQuest, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Consulted on May 27, 2009.
Email (including email interviews)
Include the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. Indicates to whom the message was sent, with the phrase "Received by" and the recipient's name. Enter the date the message was sent. Use standard capital letters.
KUNKA, Andreas.„Re: Modern Literature”Received from John Watts on November 15, 2000.
Neyhart, David.„Theme: online tutoring.”Received from Joe Barbato on December 1, 2016.
A listserv, newsgroup, or blog post
Cite web posts like a normal web post. Include the author of the paper, the title of the publication in quotation marks, the name of the website in italics, the publisher, and the date of publication. Continue with the date of access. Include screen names as author names if the author's name is not known. If both names are known, enclose the author's name in parentheses.
Name of the author or compiler (if any). "Entry Title."Website Name, version number (if applicable), name of the institution/organization (sponsor or publisher) associated with the site, URL. access date.
Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. "Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?"BoardGameGeek, 29 Sep 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Consulted on April 5, 2009.
Start with the user's Twitter handle instead of the author's name. Then enclose the entire tweet in quotes, and inside the quotes add a period after the tweet. Include the date and time of publication using the reader's time zone. Separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Enter the date of access if necessary.
@tombrokaw.„SC showed why all debates are the engines of this campaign.”Woe,January 22, 2012 3:06 am twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
@PurdueWLab.„Spring break is just around the corner and all of our locations will be open next week.”Gore, March 5, 2012 12:58 PM m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.
Video and audio sources should be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing MLA-style print sources. Include as much descriptive information as is necessary to help readers understand the nature and nature of the source you are citing. If the author's name is the same as the person who uploaded it, cite it only once. If the author is not the uploader, please cite the author's name before the title.
McGonigal, Jane. "Games and Productivity".YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, Jul 3, 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
„8 Hot-Dog-Gadgets im Test.“YouTube,Uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, June 6, 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
A comment on a website or article.
Enter the username as the author. use the phraseLeave a comment,before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Include the publisher, date, time (listed next to the comment), and URL.
Not omniscient enough. Leave a comment„The flight attendant tells the passenger to shut up after an argument over pasta.”ABC News, June 9, 2016 at 4:00 p.m. m. abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.
Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author's name in brackets.What are 3 rules to a work cited page? ›
Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. Only the title should be centered. The citation entries themselves should be aligned with the left margin.
Title of source.
Book Title: And Subtitle if Included. "Title of Essay or Chapter." "Article Title: And Subtitle if Included."
All MLA citations will follow a template of applicable core elements: author, title, container, contributors, version, number, publisher, date, and location. If you are missing any of the core elements, simply leave them off.How do you cite an electronic source? ›
- publication or update date.
- article title.
- journal title.
- the type of medium (i.e. CD-ROM, online, etc.)
- volume and/or pages.
- a source statement (e.g. URL, electronic database vendor, email address, etc.)
- date you accessed the resource online.
In-text Citation - Electronic Sources with No Page Numbers
If there are no page numbers on the electronic source, use only the author name or the first main word of the title. Signal phrase, "quote" (Author). Signal phrase, "quote" ("Shortened Title" - if citing a webpage or article and author is unknown).
It is not necessary to include sources that you consulted but did not directly reference in the works cited list – it should only include the sources you directly quoted or paraphrased. Each in-text citation should therefore have a corresponding entry in the works cited list.What are two things that dont need to be cited? ›
Listed below are a few items you generally don't need to cite no matter which citation style you use. Your own personal/anecdotal information or experiences. Your own arguments or opinions. Your own videos, photographs, and other artwork you've created.What is the one thing does not need to be cited? ›
Common knowledge does not need to be cited. Common knowledge includes facts that are known by a lot of people and can be found in many sources.Which five 5 pieces of information are required when citing sources of information? ›
While you are doing research and locating sources, be sure to document materials thoroughly, noting the author, title, publisher, place of publication, date, and page numbers of all sources used.
Reference lists and bibliographies
For each source, you'll typically include the: Author name. Title. Publication date.
Author's Last Name. Page Number of Cited Material.What are the rules for MLA citations? ›
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.What is proper MLA citation example? ›
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).What are 4 examples of electronic sources? ›
Electronic information resources are provided in electronic form, and these include CD-ROM database, online databases, online journals, OPACs, Internet and other computer-based electronic networks (Quadri, Adetimirin & Idowu, 2014).What is electronic reference citation? ›
Basics of Citing Electronic Sources
Electronic source reference entries often have additional components (like electronic retrieval information): Author. (Publication date). Title of document. Publishing information or electronic retrieval information.
The author's last name and inclusive page numbers, from which the quote or paraphrase was taken, must appear in the text. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself, or in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The page numbers must always appear in parentheses.How would you fix the following in text citation for a quote from an online source without page numbers? ›
"When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these."How do you in text cite a PDF in MLA? ›
Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine/Newspaper Name, Day Month Year, pp. Pages, URL, PDF file or PDF download.
Using too many references does not leave much room for your personal standpoint to shine through. As a general rule, you should aim to use one to three, to support each key point you make. This of course depends on subject matter and the point you are discussing, but acts as a good general guide.Can you get in trouble for not citing sources? ›
When you use the work of others and do not cite the source, you are committing a form of academic dishonesty, even if the assignment is not graded. UNC does not treat the offense of plagiarism lightly; if a violation occurs, the punishment may include one semester of suspension and a failing grade in the class.Do I need to cite if I paraphrase? ›
Paraphrasing ALWAYS requires a citation. Even if you are using your own words, the idea still belongs to someone else. Sometimes there is a fine line between paraphrasing and plagiarizing someone's writing. Here's one strategy for paraphrasing effectively: read over the paragraph of interest.What are four 4 things that could be should be included in a citation no matter the source? ›
What are the elements of citation? The main elements included in all book citations across APA, MLA, and Chicago style are the author, the title, the year of publication, and the name of the publisher. A page number is also included in in-text citations to highlight the specific passage cited.Can you reference without citing? ›
You need to provide a citation whenever you refer to an idea that you derived from a source. This is the case whether you use a direct quote, a paraphrase, or even just a direct or indirect mention.Do I need to cite something I already know? ›
If what you are incorporating into your writing is simply common knowledge, you will not need to cite the source of this information.How often should you cite the same source? ›
In paragraphs that contain one overall instance of paraphrased information, “cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 254).When should you not cite? ›
- Cite when you are directly quoting. ...
- Cite when you are summarizing and paraphrasing. ...
- Cite when you are citing something that is highly debatable. ...
- Don't cite when what you are saying is your own insight. ...
- Don't cite when you are stating common knowledge.
Citations typically include: author names, title, publisher, publisher location, date of publication, journal title, volume, issue, and/or page numbers. Citing your sources is a fundamental research skill. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device.What 3 types of evidence or source material do not need to be cited? ›
- Common knowledge (2,3). Common knowledge includes facts that are found in many sources. ...
- Generally accepted or observable facts (2,4). When a fact is generally accepted or easily observable, you do not need a citation. ...
- Original ideas and lived experiences (4).
- Author. List individual authors as usual, with surname first followed by first and middle initials. ...
- Date. ...
- Webpage title. ...
- Organization or website name. ...
For in-text citation, the easiest method is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke 2001), but the exact way you cite will depend on the specific type of style guide you follow.What are the three tips in making citations? ›
Tips for Citing Sources
Write down the complete citation information for each book, article, etc. you use as you go along. Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words. Always credit original authors for their information and ideas.
- Make use of referencing websites.
- Check before you start which referencing format is required. ...
- Follow the rules. ...
- Include a reference list at the end of your assignment.
- Include in the reference list anything that you have used or quoted.
- List authors, editors and other sources alphabetically.
- APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences.
- MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities.
- Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts.
- Dictionaries (both language and topical)
- Bibliographies (lists of resources on a specific topic)
- Research handbooks and guides.
- Atlases and maps.
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Set 1 inch page margins.
- Apply double line spacing.
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page.
- Center the paper's title.
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch.
- Help curious readers retrace your research steps.
- Help you build credibility and be more likely to win your argument.
- Give credit to the people who've done the work you want to talk about.
- Allow you to avoid a charge of plagiarism.
What are the four parts of an in-text citation? References usually consist of four parts: author, year of publication, title, and publication information.What should we not cite in MLA? ›
In general, if it's your words, your opinion, your photo, or your graph, of course, you don't need to cite it. HOWEVER, if you are using information from one of your own previously published works (journal article, book chapter, etc.), you MUST cite it just as you would cite another author's work.
- Your document should be typed in double-space, 12 pt. ...
- Limit or completely avoid bolding text or italicizing for emphasis as italics are used for book titles and other longer works.
- There should only be one space after all marks of punctuation.
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].What is the easiest way to cite MLA? ›
An online article in an MLA works cited page needs to follow this format: Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Online Publication Title, day month year, URL. Accessed day month year.How do you cite an online article in MLA? ›
Revised on June 16, 2022. An MLA website citation includes the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date, and the URL (without “https://”). If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead.What 3 things must you cite? ›
- When you quote two or more words verbatim, or even one word if it is used in a way that is unique to the source. ...
- When you introduce facts that you have found in a source. ...
- When you paraphrase or summarize ideas, interpretations, or conclusions that you find in a source.
The main elements included in all book citations across APA, MLA, and Chicago style are the author, the title, the year of publication, and the name of the publisher. A page number is also included in in-text citations to highlight the specific passage cited.What are 3 the needs for citing sources? ›
To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas. To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors. To allow your reader to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography or reference list.What are the rules of citation? ›
- Rule 1: Include relevant citations.
- Rule 2: Read the publications you cite.
- Rule 3: Cite in accordance with content.
- Rule 4: Cite transparently, not neutrally.
- Rule 5: Cite yourself when required.
- Rule 6: Prioritise the citations you include.
- Rule 7: Evaluate citations as the choices that they are.
In most cases, the first word will be the author's last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.What are the two main details needed in citing a source? ›
Generally, a citation will include: the name of the book, article, or other resource; the name of its author; information (if applicable) about the journal it came from; the date it was published; and when it was accessed if it was read online.
- Citation in the bibliography. The reference list (APA) or works cited (MLA) list is an alphabetical list of citations for the sources you used in your work. This list appears at the end of your work. ...
- Corresponding in-text citations. You also need to create in-text citations.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.How do you cite MLA correctly? ›
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).How much citation is too much? ›
There is no such thing as “over-citing,” so cite the original source as much as possible. You must cite the source every time you incorporate research, words, ideas, data, or information that is not your own (2).What are all the rules for MLA format? ›
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Set 1 inch page margins.
- Apply double line spacing.
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page.
- Center the paper's title.
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch.
- Use title case capitalization for headings.